| Categories genes  | Tags growth  reproductive  sugar  reproductive growth  tillering  development  yield  grain  starch  grain size  endosperm  grain filling  chalkiness  endosperm development  sucrose  grain quality  resistance  magnaporthe oryzae  homeostasis 
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    • A phenotypic comparison of mutants expressing different amounts of DRUS1 and 2 revealed that reproductive growth requires a threshold level of DRUS1/2 proteins
    • DRUS1 and 2 maintain cell viability by repressing protease-mediated cell degradation and likely by affecting sugar utilization or conversion
    • We observed that both FLR1 and FLR2 were involved in tillering of rice, but at different levels
    • Interestingly, FLR1 and FLR2 showed different functions related to fertility, and FLR1 might be specifically involved in rice male gametophyte development
    • In this study, we generated flr1 and flr2 T-DNA insertion null mutants and investigated potential role of FLRs in rice yield
    • With these similar but different functions, we suggest that FLR1 and FLR2 might function in complementary ways to regulate the yield of rice
    • To elucidate the possible mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we found that FLR1 was constitutively expressed during endosperm development
    • flr1 mutants had a higher cell number and an accelerated rate of grain filling compared to wild-type plants, which led to grains with greater widths
    • A mechanism underlying the regulation of grain size by FLR1 is that FLR1 is associated with OsRac1 Rho-like GTPase, a positive regulator of grain size
    • Regarding grain quality, the flr1 mutant had a higher percentage of chalkiness compared with wild-type plants, and seeds carrying mutations in flr3 and flr14 had endosperms with white floury cores
    • RNA-seq analysis identified 2,367 genes that were differentially expressed in the flr1 mutant, including genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism and carbon fixation
    • In the present study, we found that FERONIA-like receptor 1 (FLR1) positively regulates Magnaporthe oryzae resistance and that expression of FLR1 is strongly induced in response to Ca(2+) deficiency
    • Moreover, RNA sequencing revealed 2,697 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the flr1 mutant compared with wild-type, and some of these DEGs are involved in cellular metal ion homeostasis and transition metal ion homeostasis
    • Changes in expression of overlapping genes between the flr1 mutant and in plants under low-Ca(2+) treatment were consistent in terms of direction, indicating that FLR1 is involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis
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